The new sand goby species Pomatoschistus nanus (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the northern coast of the Levantine Sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea) based on both morphological and DNA barcoding data. The new species is the smallest fish in the Mediterranean Sea and may be distinguished from congeners by the following features: predorsal area, first dorsal-fin base and breast naked; δ-pore missing; anterior point of the suborbital row b not reaching level of posterior point of suborbital row d; slightly emarginated caudal fin and nape coloration pattern. DNA barcode data clearly discriminate Pomatoschistus spp. in the neighbour-joining tree with an average of 17·7% interspecific K2P distance. The most closely related taxon to P. nanus sp. nov. is Pomatoschistus bathi and the most distantly related is Pomatoschistus tortonesei with 11·9 and 21·9% K2P distances respectively. Morphometric and genetic data are also provided for Pomatoschistus bathi.