Photoadaptations of zooxanthellae living within the deep water coral Leptoseris fragilis taken from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) were studied. Specimens-collected in summer 1988 between 110 and 120 m depth —were transplanted to 70 and 160 m. At each depth individuals were exposed in their natural growth position (oral side facing the surface) or in a reverse growth position (oral side facing the bottom). After 1 yr of exposure the corals were collected and the zooxanthellae were isolated. As a function of the availability of light with depth and growth position several algal parameters showed changes which are related to photoadaptations. The relatively low density of zooxanthellae of 0.15x106 cellsxcm-2 at a natural growth depth of 116 m decreased to 0.0034x106 cellsxcm-2 (Δ2%) at 160 m in specimens growing with a natural orientation. In corals with a downward-facing oral surface at the same depth (160 m) only degenerated algae could be observed. With respect to depth dependence the volume of the algae decreased from 728 μm3 at 116 m to 406 μm3 at a depth of 160 m and the content of pigments increased. The augmentation of peridinin per cell was low (two times at 160 m compared to 116 m). Chlorophyll a and in particular chlorophyll c 2 concentrations per cell were enhanced. Compared to natural amounts at 116 m, chl a was five times and chl c 2 eight times higher at 160 m. At all depths the chl c 2 content per cell was higher than for chl a. The formation of chl a/chl c 2 complexes as light harvestor is discussed. Light harvesting, with chl c 2 prevailing may be explained as a special type of chromatic adaptation of L. fragilis in a double sense: (1) in the habitat light short wavelengths predominate. This light can be directly absorbed with pigments such as chl a and chl c 2. (2) Host pigments absorb visible violet light and transform these wavelengths, less suitable for photosynthesis, into longer ones by means of autofluorescence. The emitted longer wavelengths fit the absorption maxima of the algal pigments. Thus the host supports photosynthesis of his symbionts. Corals exposed at 160 m depth with a downward facing oral surface were alive after 1 yr and the host wavelength transforming pigment system was still present, but zooxanthellae were absent or degenerated. The light field at 160 m seems therefore to be critical: the combined photoadaptations of host and symbionts, allowing photosynthesis under barren light conditions, seem to be exhausted. In L. fragilis the photoadaptive strategies of host and symbionts cooperate harmoniously. In addition, the adaptations are interlocked with the particular light situation of the habitat with respect to light quantity and quality. The cooperation of physical and organismic parameters examplifies how evolution and, in particular, coevolution has led to optimal fitness.
Israel - Red Sea