Holstein et al. 2016

scientific article | PLoS ONE | open access

Depth-independent reproduction in the reef coral Porites astreoides from shallow to mesophotic zones

Holstein DM, Smith TB, Paris CB


Mesophotic coral ecosystems between 30–150 m may be important refugia habitat for coral reefs and associated benthic communities from climate change and coastal development. However, reduced light at mesophotic depths may present an energetic challenge to the successful reproduction of light-dependent coral organisms, and limit this refugia potential. Here, the relationship of depth and fecundity was investigated in a brooding depth-generalist scleractinian coral, Porites astreoides from 5–37 m in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) using paraffin tissue histology. Despite a trend of increasing planulae production with depth, no significant differences were found in mean peak planulae density between shallow, mid-depth and mesophotic sites. Differential planulae production over depth is thus controlled by P. astreoides coral cover, which peaks at 10 m and ~35 m in the USVI. These results suggest that mesophotic ecosystems are reproductive refuge for P. astreoides in the USVI, and may behave as refugia for P. astreoides metapopulations providing that vertical larval exchanges are viable.

Research sites

Depth range
5- 37 m

Mesophotic “mentions”
51 x (total of 3575 words)


Scleractinia (Hard Corals)

US Virgin Islands

Diving (unspecified)

Author profiles
Daniel Holstein ( 6 pubs)
Tyler Smith ( 23 pubs)