Synodus orientalis, a new lizardfish (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) from Taiwan and Japan, with correction of the Asian records of S. lobeli. Zoological Studies 47(5): 657-662. The lizardfish Synodus orientalis is described as a new species from a specimen 205.5 mm in standard length (SL) taken at a depth of 80 m off southwestern Taiwan and one 233.6 mm SL, from 140 m in the Ogasawara Is., Japan, both previously misidentified as S. lobeli Waples and Randall, type locality Hawaii. Synodus orientalis differs from S. lobeli in a larger size (largest of 33 specimens of S. lobeli, 121 mm SL, including a fully mature female, 76 mm SL), 13 instead of 10 or 11 peritoneal spots, 39 or 40 instead of 18-22 gill rakers on the ceratobranchial of the 1st gill arch, and in color. The range of S. lobeli is extended to the Marshall Is. and Ogasawara Is., the latter locality by 2 specimens, 68-69 mm SL, first reported as Synodus sp. in a checklist of the shore fishes of the Ogasawara Is. The specimens of S. lobeli from the 3 known localities were collected at depths of 2.5-32 m.